Author Topic: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri  (Read 5492 times)

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #15 on: March 07, 2016, 09:47:30 AM »
16.  drsya vaaritam chittah maatmanah
       chittva darsanam tattva darsanam.

If one's attention is turned away from external objects of sense and focused on the light of the Self,
that is the true vision of Reality.

To realize the Self, it is necessary to give one's attention solely to the 'I', the first person.  This is possible
only if one turns his attention away from otherness, from other things and other persons that make up
the objective world  -- and away from images and ideas that relate to the world.  This process is what
the Maharshi has termed as Atma Vichara or self inquiry.  'If one leaves aside Vichara, the most efficacious
Sadhana, there are no other adequate means whatsoever to make the mind subside.  If made to subside
by other means, it will remain as if subsided but will rise again.' (David Godman, Be As  You Are.)

On 'external' and 'internal' the Maharshi has said, 'Because your outlook is externally directed, you speak
of a 'without'.  In that state, you are advised to look within.  In fact, the Self is neither within nor without.'             
(Venkataramanan Atma Bodha, Verse 34)

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #16 on: March 08, 2016, 10:05:31 AM »
17.  maanasam tu kim maargane krte
       naiva maanasam maarga aarjavaat.

Again, if one persists in asking, 'What is this mind of mine?' it will be found that there is really no such
thing as 'mind'.  This is the Direct Path.

When the individual all along has thought was his 'mind' turns to be nothing other than his Self.  The
mind has no existence of its own and ceases to function once its nature is revealed.  To keep one's attention
on the Self is the direct way to know the mind. This is the jnana marga or vichara.

Sankara also insisted on the necessity for this path, 'Compared with all other means, Jnana, knowledge,
is the only direct means to liberation as cooking is impossible without fire so is liberation impossible without
knowledge. ( Atma Bodha -Verse  2)

While knowledge is thus eventually essential to Realization, it is not always advisable for everyone regardless
of the stage of understanding on spiritual development.  When asked, 'Can the path of inquiry be followed
by all aspirants?'  the Maharshi replied, 'This is suitable only for the ripe souls.  The rest should follow different
methods to the state of their minds.  ('Words of Grace' ; 'Spiritual Instructions')

contd.,

Arunachala Siva. 
           

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #17 on: March 09, 2016, 09:31:50 AM »
18. vrttayas tvaham vritti maasritah
      vrttayo mano viddhayaham manah.


What one has thought of as his mind is merely a bundle of thoughts.  All these thoughts depend upon
the one thought of 'I', the ego. Therefore, the so called mind is the 'I' thought.

The power of the ''I' thought' is limitless. In Yoga Vasishta, Siva informs Vasishta that 'The idea of 'I'
brings in its train the ideas of time, space and other potencies.' (Yoga Vaisishta, Aiyer)  The mind is
the 'I-am-the-body' illusion.  The Maharshi says specifically, 'The mind is the only identity of the Self
with the body.'  (Talks )

Clearly, the core of the Maharshi's teaching involves an understanding the nature of the mind and its
relation to human bondage and freedom. In the preceding verses the control or annihilation of the mind
has been discussed.  Now we are advised that the mind is simply a bundle of thoughts wrapped about a
feeling of 'I' wrongly associated with the body.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.         

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #18 on: March 10, 2016, 09:55:59 AM »
19.  aham-ayam kuto bhavati chinvatah
       ayi patat-yaham nija vicharanam.

If one asks himself, 'Where does this I come from?' it will vanish.  This is Self Inquiry, or atma vichara.

Since the feeling, 'I am the body' is illusory, it cannot continue the masquerade under sustained  scrutiny.
The Maharshi has taught, 'The thought 'I am this body of flesh and blood' is the one thread on which are
strung the various other thoughts. Therefore, if we turn inwards, inquiring 'Where is this I?'  all thoughts
including the I - thought will come to an end and Self Knowledge will then spontaneously shine forth within
the cave (the Heart) as 'I-I'....(Sadhu Om. Path).

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.       

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #19 on: March 11, 2016, 09:54:08 AM »
20.  ahami naasa bhaaj yaham ahamtaya
       sphurati hrt svayam parama purna sat.

Where this 'I' vanished and merged in its Source, there appears spontaneously and continuously
an 'I'-'I'.  This is the Heart, the infinite Supreme Being.

Devotees sometimes had difficulty understanding Sri Maharshi's use of the term 'I',  though in this
and other statements,  He makes His meaning clear.  In the ultimate sense, 'I' is God's name
or the name of our own real selves.  In reference to the limited, ignorant individual, 'I'  refers to the
ego or the 'I am the body' illusion.  This illusory 'I' is discontinuous, broken in waking and dream,
absent in deep sleep.  The Maharshi refers to the true 'I' as 'I-I' to indicate its continuous nature.
Actually, there is no way the this infinite 'I-I'  can be grasped intellectually by anyone.  The true 'I'
appears, or is experienced, only when the mind is dead, either temporarily in deep sleep or permanently
in the case of the Jnani.

Again, in the ultimate sense, 'there is neither I (the ego) nor any other thing.  Only Brahman exists always,
full of bliss everywhere.(Yoga Vasishta Sara, VIII.10 Sureshananda)

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.               

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #20 on: March 12, 2016, 10:28:02 AM »
21. idam aham padaa bhikhyanam anvaham
      ahami linake pyalaya sattyaa.

And this uninterrupted 'I-I' is the true meaning of the term 'I' because when the waking 'ego-I'  daily
disappears in deep sleep, the real 'i' remains.

Each day, the Jiva undergoes the equivalent of death when overtaken by sleep. Yet, as in the physical
death of the body, his true identity remains.  Therefore, Jnani has no more fear of death than of sleep,
knowing that his Pure Being and Consciousness are unaffected thereby.  The same survival is true
of all Jivas, yet the ignorant know it is not and live in a state of fear and desire -- desire for a state of peace,
security and happiness, which is already his true nature.   

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.     

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #21 on: March 13, 2016, 09:42:17 AM »
22.  vigrahendriya praanadhi tamah
        naaham eka sat tajjadam hyasat.


This true  'I', the One Reality, is not the body, or the senses, or mind, or breath, or ignorance.
These are all inert and insentient.

To discover this truth is the real purpose of human life.  Pleasure, happiness, and satisfaction are
certainly to be found in the world of sensual experience, but they are, sadly, only temporary conditions,
bound by time and place, -- inevitably followed by frustration and pain.


In the Manusamhita, the student is advised, 'Desire is never extinguished by the enjoyment of
desired objects.  It only grows stranger like a fire fed with clarified butter.  If one man should
obtain all those sensual enjoyments and another should renounce them all, that renunciation of all
pleasures is far better than the attainment of them.  (Laws of Manu, II.  Buhler)

This verse of Upadesa Saram explains who this is so.  The senses and body are not one's true 'I' or
the Self.  Any attempt to use them for enjoyment is bound to end in futility.  However, until Liberation,
we feel compelled to repeat each attempt again and again.

One must stress in this verse the sense:  'in themselves'.  'When asked why Upadesa Saram speaks of the
body etc. as Jada or insentient, the Maharshi replied, '(They are insentient) in as much as you say they are
apart from the Self.  But when the Self is  found, this body etc., are also found to be in the Self. Afterwards
no one will ask the question and no one will say they are insentient.'  (Venkataramiah Talks p. 269).                       

This verse concerns specifically the five sheaths, which envelop the individual and prevent him from
realizing his true nature. Tamas, darkness or ignorance refers to the Anandamaya kosa, or blissful
sheath, which covers one during deep sleep.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #22 on: March 14, 2016, 10:09:45 AM »
23.  sattva bhaasika chit kvavetaraa
       sattvaa hi chit cittayaa hyaham.


There is only one Being that can know Reality.  That only one Being is itself Reality and is itself
Consciousness.

This simple revelation sums up the whole of the Jnani's experience and the whole metaphysics of advaita.
The reference of the eye 'seeing' itself. The Self (Reality) cannot see itself for there are not two Selves,
permitting one to see the other.  The Self can only be itself. if 'sees' itself only as a reflection in the cosmos,
just as the eye requires a mirror to see its own form.

Sri Maharshi comments on this and the previous verse to where sentience, or conscious, lies. 'In  the former
(Verse 22), the body, senses, breath, mind and nescience are described as asat (unreal) and jadam (insentient), while the 'I' is eka sat (the only Reality).  Then the question remains: Is the 'I' chit (sentient)
or jadam (insentient)?  To this, the reply is given in Verse 23. Sat (Reality) is chit (sentient). (Subbaramayya
-- Reminiscences.)

Speaking to a young girl, five year old indira, who had picked out some Sanskrit letters of Upadesa Saram,
(Verse  22 and 23), the Maharshi explained what they meant, 'I am not the body Who am I? I am He.' 
(deham naham koham soham).  The Maharshi  asked her to make them as her mantra, saying it was the
essence of wisdom.  Indira continued to recite these words for the rest of her brief life.  (Subbaramaya --
Reminiscences.)

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.

                                   

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #23 on: March 15, 2016, 11:18:36 AM »
24.  Isa javayor vesa dhi bhida
       Sat svabaavato vastu kevalam.

Both Creator and creature are essentially one and the same Reality. Their apparent differences are due
only to differences in form and levels of knowledge.

The key to this and the following verse is Vesha or attributes. Vastu kevalam, or Absolute Brahman is
Nirguna Brahman, without any limiting attributes whatsoever. Saguna Brahman is the Ultimate Reality
which appears to take on attributes in manifestation.  God, the Creator, or Isa, has the attributes,
'all knowing' and 'all powerful'.  The individual or Jiva is ignorant and weak.  Yet basically, Isa and Jiva
are the same substance.

So long as one thinks he is the body he shall be bound by attributes. When by the inquiry, 'Who am I?',
he discovers he is not the body, he also discovers that he is, in reality, attributeless, like Brahman.

Referring to the triad common to all religious systems, the Individual, the World, and God, Sri Bhagavan
says that these  are all the illusions of the outgoing mind.  When, however, they are viewed from the standpoint of Ultimate Reality they are seen as one.  The Sanskrit text, isajivayo ( between Isvara and the
individual) identifies two persons, the Creator and created, and the verse concludes that they are both
the same in essence (the Absolute Brahman), differing only in their attributes of power  and knowledge.
(See Subbaramayya, -Reminiscences)

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.                   

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #24 on: March 16, 2016, 09:49:47 AM »
25. Vesha haanatah svaatma darshanam
      isa darsanam svaatma roopatah.

When the creature abandons its illusory individual form and recognizes itself as without attributes,
it sees the Creator as its own true Self.

The solution to the ignorance and weakness of the individual is here revealed.  It lies in the elimination
of attributes (Vesha), by recognizing that one is truly not the body or the mind which are the vehicles
of limitation.  Such recognition is possible only after the ego is dead and one has surrendered himself to the
Creator.  Then both are known to be the same attributeless Reality or Self.

Ironically, our efforts to improve our own image and achieve fame and wealth and power serve actually
to increase our limitations.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.         

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #25 on: March 17, 2016, 10:25:43 AM »
26.  atma samsthitih svaatma darsanam
       atma nirdvayaad atma nisthataa.

Being the Self is knowing the Self,  because there is only one Self, not the two.  This Being and knowing
the Self is abiding in the Reality.

The same imperative is given in the Maharshi's Forty Verses on Reality.  'Other than turning the mind within,
and lodging it in the Self, how is it possible to think of the Self with the mind?'  (Ramana Maharshi,  Mahadevan,  Verse  22).

And elsewhere, 'Can knowledge be other than Being?  Being is the core, the Heart.  How then is the Supreme
Being to be contemplated and glorified?  Only by remaining the Pure Self...'  (Talks, Munagala Venkataramiah.)       

Therefore, it is futile to attempt to understand the Self by reasoning or intellectual arguments.  Thought is an
obstacle to Self Realization, which in end can be attained only when the ego has been destroyed and all
conceptualizing abandoned.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva. 

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #26 on: March 18, 2016, 10:17:07 AM »
27. Jnana-varijita jnana-hina chit
      Jnanam asti kim jnaatum antaram.

True knowledge is beyond what we think of as 'knowledge'  or 'ignorance' because in the State of Non-
differentiation what other thing is to be known?

The Jnani is aware of everything as the Self.  He does not 'see' objects as existing in themselves as
objects, but only as reflections of the one Universal Brahman.  Hence, while the Jnani is not ignorant,
he does not have 'knowledge' of objects, since, unlike the Jiva, he knows nothing other than the Self.

Sankara insisted on this as the essence of Advaita.  'All modifications of clay, such as jar, etc.,which are
always accepted by the mind as real, are in reality nothing but clay. Similarly, the entire universe, which
is produced from the real Brahman, is Brahman Itself and nothing but That. (Viveka Choodamani, Verse 251,
Madhavananada). 

And again, 'All that is perceived, all that is heard, is  Brahman, and nothing else.  Attaining the knowledge of
Reality, one sees the universe as the non dual Brahman: Being, Knowledge, Bliss Absolute. (Atma Bodha,
Verse 64, Venkataramanan.).

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.   
           

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #27 on: March 19, 2016, 10:37:20 AM »
28.  kim svarupam ityaatma darsane
       avyayaa bhaava purna chit sukam.

If one's true Self is known, then there is neither birth nor death, but eternal Being, Consciousness, Bliss.

The Maharshi often asked those who came to Him with questions to find out if they had ever been born.
Once they had been able to answer this fundamental question, He said, they would have no others. This
verse puts the matter in a different order: When, by the sadhanas prescribed in the preceding verses,
one knows his Self,  then he will discover that he was never born.

All earthly existence is experienced by an apparent entity which believes itself to have been born and to have
enjoyed and suffered -- an entity which will finally die.  It is only as real as the subjects in dream.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.   

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #28 on: March 20, 2016, 10:15:38 AM »
29.  bandha muktyaati tam-param-sukham
       vindatihaji vastu daivikah.

The Jiva who attains the state of Supreme Bliss, beyond any thoughts of bondage or freedom is truly
devoted to the Lord.

This verse is the Maharshi's conclusion as to the relationship between the Bhakti and Jnana margas,
first mentioned in verse 5.   Abiding in the state of Supreme Bliss is true 'service' or 'worship' of the Lord
because the divine Jiva is not separate  from Brahman and realizes his identity.  Whatever he may 'do'
is itself divine. 

Devotion is not truly bhakti so long as the worshipper believes himself to be a separate reality, usurping
thereby something of the universally of the Lord's Being and Consciousness.  Only the utter surrender
of one's individuality can be true bhakti, which is also true Jnana.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.     
 

Subramanian.R

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Re: Upadesa Saram - Tr. D.M. Sastri
« Reply #29 on: March 21, 2016, 11:17:38 AM »
30.  aham apetakam nija vibhaanakam
        mahad idam tapo ramana vaagiyam.

When the individual 'I' has disappeared and the real 'I-I' has been found, that is excellent tapas. Ramana
says this.

The final verse places the whole of Upadesa Saram in the setting of the story of Daruka forest ascetics
as used by Muruganar.  The ascetics had practiced austerities (tapas) for false purposes.  The Maharshi
affirms here that Atma Vichara is itself the 'excellent tapas that they should make use of for true happiness.
Muruganar wrote the original Tamizh version of this verse, stating Ramana Maharshi to the THE SELF.  Sri
Ramana, did not Himself say that He was 'enlightened',  except by implication, and did not carry Muruganar's
statement over into the Sanskrit version of this verse.  Nevertheless, it is as Lord Ramana, the Self, that He
spoke in these thirty verses. And for those who understand and follow and are freed by this advice, it is
He alone who understands and guides and frees.

Upadesa Saram - D.M. Sastri's English translation is completed.

Arunachala Siva.