Author Topic: Ozhivil Odukkam - A third serial post. - 2015 onwards.  (Read 11463 times)

Subramanian.R

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Ozhivil Odukkam - A third serial post. - 2015 onwards.
« on: June 23, 2015, 01:45:13 PM »
I have given the translation of Ozhivil Odukkam (Repose in the Remainder) of KaNNiudaiya VaLLalar, 
by Robert Butler with commentary of S. Ram Mohan and Robert Butler - up to Verse 77 in my serial
post titled, 'Ozhivil Odukkam - A Second Serial Post', from 2013 onward, under the 'Teachings of
Bhagavan Ramana Maharshi.'  I am giving in this the translation and commentary from Verse 78 onward,
from the issues of Mountain Path, Jan. 2015 onward.

***

Verse 78:

The  way in which the disciple is killed (by the word of the master),yet still lives, may be compared to a wife
dying on merely hearing the death of her husband; to milk (which boils over in an instant); to a deeply devoted
wife, immolating herself on her husband's funeral pyre; to a loving widow (who remains faithful to her husband
even after he dies), or to the generosity of Karna at the time of his death.

In this verse, the woman who has lost her husband is used three times as a term of comparison.  In the first
two instances, the widow stands for the ego, the personal self, which is annihilated immediately on the mature
disciple hearing the words of the guru. In the third, the widow stands for the disciple himself, who on hearing
the word of the guru abandons all ideas of 'I' and 'mine', just as the faithful widow gives up her previous worldly
existence on the death of her husband.

In the reference to milk, it is not clear which property of milk is being referred to.  One possibility is that it is a
reference to the way in which a tiny amount of curd is sufficient to 'seed' a whole dish of milk, leaving nothing
of the original milk, just as a word from the guru is sufficient to entirely transform the consciousness of the ripe
disciple in an absolute and and irreversible fashion.

The reference to Karna at the end of the verse requires some explanation.  Karna is a major character in the
Mahabharata who fought on the side of Dhritarstra against the sons of Pandu.  Karna had been born to Kunti
by the sun god Soorya, before her marriage to Pandu. Abandoned at birth, he had been adopted by Adhirata,
a great comrade of Dhritarastra, and thus came to fight against his own half brothers,the sons of Pandu, in the
Kurukshetra battle.                           

Different accounts of Karna's act of generosity at the time of his death, are given in the Sanskrit Mahabharata of
Vyasa and in the Tamizh Villibharatam of Villiputturar.  In the latter, Krishna approaches Karna in the guise of
a brahmin, asking for alms. Being on the battlefield Karna has nothing to offer.  The brahmin reminds him that
he can give him the mountain-like Punya which he has accumulated throughout his life with his matchless
generosity. Karna agrees. Krishna then reveals his true identity and leaves, having rendered Karna capable
of being killed by Arjuna  through the loss of merit which had previously protected him. In the Sanskrit
Mahabharata, in which Karna's vulnerability to Arjuna is established very early in his life, a much lesser degree
of generosity is involved. In order to resolve a dispute over whose son is greater, Karna's father, Soorya and
Arjuna's father Indra appear as brahmins on the battlefield.  Karna, having nothing to offer, breaks of his gold
teeth and gives them to the brahmins, thus establishing his superiority. 

Chidambara Swamigal assumes that the former account is being referred to here, as he glosses; "like the
generosity of Karna, through which, at the time of death, being mindful of his next birth, he gave up to a
brahmin all the merit he had accumulated.         

contd.

Arunachala Siva.
« Last Edit: June 24, 2015, 02:32:11 PM by Subramanian.R »

Subramanian.R

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Re: Ozhivil Odukkam - A third serial post. - 2015 onwards.
« Reply #1 on: June 24, 2015, 02:42:06 PM »
Verse 79:-

Just as the gold which goldsmith melts down in his crucible is of various degrees of purity, the results of the
Master's teaching, though taken from the Siva Agamas and clearly conveyed, will vary, depending upon the
degree of ripeness of the disciple.  Know that all do not share the same degree of maturity.

The Tamizh word used in this verse is MaaRRu, which is the technical term for the degree of fineness of gold,
which was determined by the touchstone.  (See also Verse 68).  To refine gold, the goldsmith would place the
gold of various degrees of purity in a crucible and melt it down, skimming off the impurities that rose to the
surface.  If the gold contained a lot of impurities it would take longer to refine and might need to be smelted
by a number of times, getting gradually purer. However, whatever the degree of purity, there was only one
process of refining it. In the same way, the Master's teachings, though derived from the Saiva Agamas and
same for all, will take more or less time to bear fruit, depending upon the  maturity of the disciple.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.             

Subramanian.R

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Re: Ozhivil Odukkam - A third serial post. - 2015 onwards.
« Reply #2 on: June 25, 2015, 08:03:17 AM »
Verse 80:-

The true reality of the life of the householder will become clear (to those of low spiritual maturity) only
very slowly. It can be compared to a carving a statue by gradually chipping away the stone, or to the
process of purifying muddy water with clearing nut.  In the end this ancient world will be as repulsive
to him as rice vomited up. Like the stem of a plantain tree placed on the fire, (very slow to burn), true
knowledge (Jnana) will arise in him only very slowly.

The subjects of this verse are the aspirants who possess the lowest grade of spiritual maturity, those
who are mantaram - exceedingly slow to respond to the teachings of the guru. The clearing-nut tree,
Strychnos potatorum, is a decidous tree which grows up to forty feet in height. Its Tamizh name is
chillam and its Hindi name is nirmali. The seeds of the tree are commonly used in traditional medicine
as well as purifying water in India and Myanmar. The state of being in which one is involved in worldly
attachments is compared to murky water; just as the clearing nut slowly causes the clear water to separate
out from the muddy sediment, the teaching of the guru will gradually purify the consciousness of the
disciple, eliminating those attachments.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.         

Subramanian.R

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Re: Ozhivil Odukkam - A third serial post. - 2015 onwards.
« Reply #3 on: June 25, 2015, 04:15:21 PM »
Verse 81:-

For those whose nature can be molded as one would forge an image in iron, true knowledge will be won (more
swiftly), as fire will burn green firewood. Then, like a drop of rain sliding from the leaf of a lotus, their wordly
life will fall away.  Divorced from them, the entire world will appear like a mirage. 

The devotees of the next to lowest degree of attainment will gain Jnana in the manner of green wood, which
will burn will enough along with a few pieces of dry wood. Chidambara Swamigal sums up the meaning of the
verse as follows: Just as green wood will burn with the help of a few pieces of firewood, Jnana will arise in them
through a few words of instruction.

The lotus leaf possesses a complex composition which repels water from its surface, reducing it to tiny droplets
and causing it to run off the leaf if it is tilted.  Not only that, any dirt particles on the leaf adhere to the droplets
of water which thus cleanse the leaf.  Hence those who are able to live in the world without being contaminated
by it are compared to the lotus leaf, which remains dry and clean, even while living in a wet, muddy environment.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.     

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #4 on: June 26, 2015, 10:14:51 AM »
Verse 82:-

(For the next highest class), to remove the body's inherited dispositions (and bestow Jnana) will be like
(carving) a wooden doll.  (Jnana will arise in them swiftly), as fire consumes charcoal. They will be
indifferent to the household they had previously cherished.  It will be like a palace of general assembly
to them, (with the people coming and going). Even the life of the gods will seem like an insubstantial
dream.

This first part of this verse is extremely elliptical, but the intended meaning is reasonably clear from what
precedes it.  Since the two preceding verses dealt with the two lowest grades of seeker, it an be assumed
that the next to the highest grade, "theevira pakkuvar" in Tamizh, are being described here. Since the
first two verses referred, respectively, to the shaping of stone and iron, this phrase may be assumed to
be referring to the carving or shaping of wood, and that what is being compared to the fire burning charcoal
is the action of Jnana in swiftly consuming the conditional awareness of the disciple.

The significance of the phrase the body's inherited dispositions is that aspirants of this degree of maturity
will no longer have any need to remove their bodha vadhanai  - inherited dispositions related to sensual
desire, since these will already have been transcended.

The idea expressed in the final line seems to be that, although we cannot experience the life of the gods,
we feel assured that it vastly more pleasurable than this earthly life. However, even such pleasures,
as we might imagine them, will seem ephemeral and insubstantial to the theevira pakkuvar.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva,.               
 

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #5 on: June 26, 2015, 02:16:27 PM »
Verse 83:-

For (those whose nature is easily molded, like) dolls made out of butter, the acquisition of Jnana will be swift,
like squirrel fur or cotton falling into the flame of a lamp. For them there are no desires. Tears will pour down
from their eyes. Oblivious to time, sobbing and melting inwardly, they will laugh and cry by turns, and the
hair of their bodies will stand on end.

Verse 84:-

(In those of the highest degree of maturity) the in dwelling anavam, ego and the outer kanmam and mayai (Karma
and Maya) have become separated (from their true self),  just as the fruit of the tamarind becomes separate
from its shell when ripe, and the seeds of future kanmam, (Karmas) have been thus annihilated, just an eye less
needle cannot be threaded.  For such as these, this freedom from desire is the bliss of the Self.

The text simply says that which sprouts within along with that which is exterior.  Chidambara Swamigal identifies
that which sprouts within as anavam (the principle of egoism) that is intimately associated with the jiva in an
inward sense, yet eternally separate from it, and that which is outside as the other two malams (impurities),
mayai and kanmam (Maya and Karma), the world illusion and the self perpetuating deeds and their fruits,
which affect the jiva in an outward sense, and must be eradicated before the inwardly dwelling anavam can
be tackled. For those preferring an interpretation more in line with Advaita Vedanta we might say that which
sprouts within is the mind, and that which is exterior is the senses and their activity.

The fruit of the puLi - tamarind tree is a long green pod.  When it ripens, the outer shell becomes brown and
brittle, at which point the brown pulp containing the seeds becomes detached from the shell and is quite easy
to extract.  Just as the brittle shell of the ripe tamarind  fruit will fall away easily, the conditional awareness
of the ripe disciple will be easily eradicated by the word of the guru.  At this point the ego, the sense of a
personal self, has died, and the disciple cannot create any further kanmam or experience its effects.  The
actions of the physical body are now those of the Self, Sivam.

Towards the end of the verse, there is a play on the word Pasam (attachments) which means the thread
as well as having the familiar meaning worldly bondage. Just as thread (Pasam) cannot follow a needle
without an eye -- kanmam - actions and their fruits cannot be become associated with those who have
abandoned worldly attachments (pasam).

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.           
     

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #6 on: June 27, 2015, 12:34:08 PM »
Verse 85:-

(The attainment of Jnana), will be like the rising of the sun, like the overwhelming desire of the lover for
his beloved; like a ship sighting shore after surviving the perils of the ocean; it will be like being freed
from prison or being cured of an incurable disease;  it will be like witnessing a miracle.

The sun is referred to as Arunan, from Sanskrit Aruna meaning reddish brown, tawny, red, ruddy, (the color of
the morning opposed to the darkness of night).  It is therefore a word well suited to symbolize the coming of
the dawn of realization, before which the darkness of Anava malam (the ego, an impurity), the ego and the
false world of duality, which is founded upon it, fades and ceases to be.  The all consuming bliss of the Self is
then compared to the desire of the lover for the beloved, which grows ever greater, eclipsing any other thoughts
and desires.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva. 

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #7 on: June 27, 2015, 12:47:08 PM »
Verse 86:-

As the body, senses, mental faculties, the three gunas (principles of nature), and the ten vital airs fall away
one after another,(mature disciples will attain) the liberation which lies beyond nada, the highest of tattvas;
then the personal self, which stands at the middle ground, (between the world and the Self), will be eradicated,
and they will enter the ocean of supreme bliss.  Finally, becoming free of all divisions, how will they not be
amazed, knowing how now that which they have never never known?

In this verse, the thirty six tattvas are referred to once more, with the addition of the three universal principles
-- rajas, ramas and sattva, and the ten vital airs, vayu, the principal one of which is prana.  The thirty six
tattvas are subject to a total of ninety six, which include, in addition to the thirty six which are the main focus
of Siddhanta, the gunas, the vital airs, the bodily sheaths, the nerves, and so on.  Four stages, leading to the
disciple's realization of his unity with the Self, are described.

First, he grasps the nature of the world around him, (described in Siddhanta terms as consisting of the thirty
six tattvas), and realizing that it is none other than the Self, becomes free of it, resulting in Veedu (liberation)
(from the tattvas); next the 'I' which stands between the Self and the world of the tattvas, subsides, a process
here described as "tan ozhivu" - the loss of oneself, the duality which it had previously mediated having now
ceased; at that point the disciple is enveloped in the ocean of supreme bliss. Finally even this state is transcended
and the disciples attain the state of oneness with the Self becoming 'chanthu azhivar' -- those who are free of
all divisions. See also Verse 41 which expresses the same four fold progression.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.               

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #8 on: June 28, 2015, 03:25:34 PM »
Verse 87:-

What obstacle remains for those who have realized the nature of knowledge, the knower and ignorance?
Will they be parted (from the Self)?  It is impossible, just as it would be impossible for the heavens,
fearing they might be robbed, to go and hide in the kitchen!

Chidambara Swamigal equates these three entities, knowledge, the knower, and ignorance with the Siddhanta
triad, pati, pasu, and pasam -- the Lord, the soul, and worldly bondage. In terms of Advaita Vedanta,
we could call them as the Self, the ego and the world or Maya.

Since the disciple has become one with Sivam, the Self, it is impossible for him even to entertain the idea that
he might become separated from it, and to take measures to prevent that happening.  In the same it is impossible
for the heavens, since they provide the space in which all things subsist, to be robbed of anything, or even
to entertain that fear, since all things, wherever they are, are always contained within it.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.     

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #9 on: June 29, 2015, 09:45:02 AM »
Verse 88:-

For those experiencing blissful union (with the Self), having come to know the true reality as surely as they
had once known the false, there is no longer any connection with anything whatsoever.  What a wonder is
the destruction of oneself, like the spreading rays of the sun, rising in the vision of a clear sighted eye
(and blotting it out completely)

Before he sets out on his spiritual quest, the disciple identifies himself with the body, senses etc., but it is
not a conscious identification. Rather is it an underlying assumption regarding his being in the world,
one that most people instinctively make,and which is never called into question. Even such a great Jnani
as Sri Ramana Maharshi,ripe for liberation though He was, had never questioned His bodily identity
until He underwent a death like experience at the age of sixteen. Later one disciple is told that he is not
the body and begins to investigate his true nature. Finally, usually after many struggles, he realizes his
true nature and becomes established in the Self.  The point being made here is that the enlightened Jnani
will not, cannot, question his identity as the Self. It is as natural to him as identification with the body
to those in the unenlightened state.

The rise of the Self eradicates all distinctions, such as the triad of knower, knowledge and the thing known,
just as the triad of seer, sight, and the thing seen is obliterated in a vision overpowered by the brilliance of
the sun.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.     
   

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #10 on: June 30, 2015, 12:28:05 PM »
Verse 89:-

For those whose personal consciousness has been annihilated, what association with anything whatsoever
remains?  For them, the whole universe has been destroyed. Where might they go and hide?  Like the tale
of a man who once went in search of a tiger, (was mauled by it and devoured), the Self will hold them in its
unblinking gaze, and bring them to complete stillness.

Since the Jnani is one without the non dual Self, the reality beyond being and non being which transcends
all limitation, nothing 'other' exists with which he might have some form of relationship, connection or attachment.
Upon the loss of the ego, the personal self, the universe is seen by the Jnani to be unreal in itself, existing only
as an appearance within the Self. Thus it is effectively destroyed. Moreover, since he is no longer part of that
illusion, and dwells beyond time and space, being and non being, as the Self, there will be no personal self to
fear that it too will be annihilated, and to attempt to preserve itself by seeking a hiding place. Hence it is said,
'engu oLittu irukkalaam?'- where might he go and hide?

Sadhu Om, in his commentary on Sri Ramana Maharshi's ULLadu NaRpadu, verse 19, records that
Bhagavan was known to tell the story of the man who set out to look for a tiger, to illustrate the point
that, for the seeker to realize the Self, the seeker that initiated the search must himself be annihilated,
offered up as a prey to the Self.  The story is as follows:

A man who has never seen a tiger becomes obsessed with the idea of seeing one. Wandering in the forest
he hears that there is a tiger in a cave at the foot of the mountain and goes there. The cave is dark and he is
not able to see the tiger, so he crawls inside, whereupon the tiger takes him in its jaws, kills and eats him.
(Paraphrased from Sri Ramanopadesa Noon Malai.) The fact that the story is alluded to only briefly here
suggests that evn at the time of KaNNudaiya VaLLalar the illustration was already widely known.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.                 

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #11 on: July 01, 2015, 11:24:51 AM »
Verse 90:-

Having realized the Self, they abide as That; for them, having perceived the nature of ignorance, there is
neither knowing nor absence of knowledge.  If one were to attempt to describe the bliss which flourishes in
the pure emptiness of the Self, where they live without living, it would be like trying to calculate the
volumes of the heavens with a pint pot.

The Tamizh words translated as pure emptiness are 'verum paazh' which mean an empty void, but this
should not be taken literally.  The words refer to the nature of the Self, as transcending both being and
non being, and possessing an infinite potential for creation and manifestation.  Envisaged from the point of
objectifying consciousness, it appears as void.  The verse as a whole is reminiscent of ULLadu Narpadu,
Verse 12, each standing as kind of commentary to, or gloss on the other.

'That in which knowledge and ignorance do not exist is (true) knowledge. That which knows (the world) is
not true knowledge. Since it shines without anything other which it knows, or makes known, the Self
is (true) knowledge.  It is not a void.'

The words pint pot at the end of the verse translated in Tamizh word 'padi', which is a small measure of
volume for liquid or grain. The translation uses the words   'pint pot' as a rough equivalent. The mind
and all other faculties, which exist only in the bliss of the Self, could not more measure it than the pot
could measure the space within which it is always filled.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.                 

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #12 on: July 02, 2015, 04:19:44 PM »
Verse 91:-

The Agamas speak of Sivam as 'the consciousness',  while Vedanta speak of 'pure consciousness'.  Both
statements are appropriate when referring to the state in which there is no separation (from Sivam or Brahman.
Those who claim 'You are That' or 'I am Brahman' will try the patience even of Hari and Brahma.

Once the personal consciousness is lost, the paths of Vedanta and Siddhanta, which appear opposed and
contradictory to those of lesser attainment, will be seen to be equally valid means of achieving the same goal.
Chidambara Swamial glosses: the declaratioins made by those Vedas and Agamas will apply equally to the state
of union with Sivam upon the loss of the ego consciousness, and the state of union with Brahman upon the loss
of personal self.

The two best known of the Mahavakyas -- great sayings of the Upanishads are referred to here, tat tvam asi - You
are That, and aham Brahmasmi - I am Brahman.  According to Chidambara Swamigal the first is associated with
the Agamas and the latter, with Vedanta.  The sentiment expressed here is similar to that of Verse 32 of Sri
Ramana Maharshi's ULLadu Narpadu:

The Vedas may proclaim in thunderous tones, 'You are That' but to think 'I am That, I am not this', -- is due to
lack of strength of mind, since That ever abides as oneself.

Bhagavan Himself was was always eager to point out that all disagreements as the ultimate of nature of reality
as based on the ego-mind only, and cease when it ceases.  This verse is one of the few that Bhagavan actually
referred to directly to in His conversations.  See Day by Day with Bhagavan, 27.3.1946 Afternoon, in which He
paraphrases the verse, which is then read out before the assembled group.

In the next chapter VaLLalar devotes an entire separate chapter to each of the subsidiary spiritual paths,
Chariyai, Kiriyai, and Yogam, explaining how in the final analysis they are unsuitable for the gaining of true
realization, Jnanam. The paths are dealt with in reverse order, beginning with the highest of the three, Yogam.

Further verses will be posted as and when the next issues of Mountain Path are available.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.                   

Subramanian.R

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Re: Ozhivil Odukkam - A third serial post. - 2015 onwards.
« Reply #13 on: July 03, 2015, 11:48:42 AM »
 Fortunately, with Sri Bhagavan's grace,  Mountain Path, July Sept issue has come last evening!

I shall continue the Ozhivil Odukkam serial post, the translation of Robert Butler and others.

Chapter 3. Transcending the path of Yoga, Yogak KazhaRRi.

Verse 92:

Dismissing chariyai and kiriyai as worthless, the Yogis perform kiriya yoga to ward off physical death. It is
difficult indeed to dissuade them from it. They do not realize that what appears to them as real while they
are experiencing it is actually false. Will they ever escape from this fixed mindset?

Although the text speaks of Karma Yogam, Sanskrit Karma Yoga, which is the discipline of acting in the world
without attachment, it is clearly Kriya Yoga that the author is referring to, as evinced by the commentary of
Chidambara Swamigal.  The practice of yoga are many and varied, both in principle and detail. However, to
give the reader some idea of what kind of practices are at issue in this chapter, we can quote a brief summary
of Kriya Yoga, as described by Paramahansa Yogananda in Chapter 26 of his book, Autobiography of a Yogi:

"The kriya yogi mentally directs his life energy to revolve, upward and downward, around the six spinal centers
(medullary, cervical, dorsal, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal plexus) which correspond to the twelve astral signs
of the zodiac, the symbolic Cosmic Man. One half minute of revolution of energy, around the sensitive spinal
cord of man effects one year of natural spiritual unfoldment."                   

The directing of the life energy is achieved by a number of means including meditation and concentration
exercises, breath control, yogic exercises, mantras and so forth.

The point being made in this and the following verse is that the yogi, as he meditates upon each chakra -
energy center and its resident deity, -- takes them to be real at that point, yet when he proceeds to the
next center and its deity, he also takes that to be real, without realizing that the previous object of his
meditation must necessarily now be deemed unreal.  Thus each new level of 'reality' is actually as unreal
as the one which preceded it.  All his attempts at transcending a given level and passing on to the next
higher one are based on the personal, discriminating consciousness, and can give him only the temporary
illusion of liberation as he explores these various levels of 'truth'!

contd.   ,

Arunachala Siva.

Subramanian.R

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« Reply #14 on: July 04, 2015, 10:31:36 AM »
Verse 93:-

They may gain the eight siddhis, and have the gods of the six paths manifest before them (in the six energy
centers of the  body), but in achieving that, a great sin will be committed, as they move up and down from
one center to another, going on and on, suffering and dying.

The eight siddhis are the powers ascribed to Lord Siva, which the ascetic is supposed to be able to acquire
through his austerities.  They are, anima, the ability to shrink oneself, or anything else, to the size of an atom;
mahima - the ability to increase one's bulk without limit; ilahima - the power to make oneself or other things
light, overcoming gravity; karima - the faculty of increasing the weight, solidity; prapti - the power of attaining
everything desired; prakamiyam - the power to overcome natural obstacles and go anywhere; isatvam or ishtatva
- supreme domination over animate or inanimate nature; vachitvam or vashitva - the power of enchanting,
changing the course of nature or assuming any form.

The six paths of to liberation were mentioned earlier (Verse 43). Each of the paths has its own presiding
deity, in one of the chakras - energy centers of the body - upon whom the disciple meditates. When
he has practiced one path to the Guru's satisfaction, he is initiated into the next path and so on.

The true jnani understands that in the unenlightened individual the ego dies and is reborn from moment
to moment, and that the true death is the death of the ego, not the physical body.  The failure to understand
this continual process of dying and being reborn is seen by the jnani as the cause of all suffering, and his
goal is to eradicate the mechanism of the discriminating consciousness which is at the root of it. By
contrast the Kriya Yoga, by deliberately engaging with the mind, and even expanding its illusory powers
to the utmost through the development of the supernatural abilities, condemns himself to this continuous
round of suffering, as the ego continually dies and is reborn in a new guise, each as unsatisfactory,
incomplete and unreal as the last.  In sharp contrast the approach to spiritual practice, sadhana, described
in this book is that pointed to by Nisargadatta Maharaj in I am That, Talk 33.

'Both mind and body are intermittent states.  The sum total of these flashes creates the illusion of existence.
Inquire what is permanent in the transient, real in the unreal.  This is sadhana.

Conversely, the sadhana of the yogi, being principally focused on the body mind complex, does not afford
the aspirant the opportunity to focus on the unity,, underlying background of Sivam, the Self, which
underlies his entire being.

contd.,

Arunachala Siva.