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Ramana Maharshi => General topics => Topic started by: Subramanian.R on March 29, 2013, 04:58:52 PM

Title: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on March 29, 2013, 04:58:52 PM
Amrita Saram which means The Essence of Nectar, is an advaitic original work in Tamizh by Tattuvarya, a 15th century Tamizh saint.

I am giving the English translation (only extracts) of David Godman, Dr. Venkatasubramanian and Robert Butler.

1. Reverence to the Lord.

To those who possess the eye of Jnana, Sorupam, the Reality, is the Effulgence of Jnana-Ananda. But to those who possess
only the physical eye, he (that reality) is the world.   His golden feet which are unattainable even by the gods in heaven, are,
on this day, easy for me to attain.

In the first verse Tattuvaraya salutes his Guru, Sorupananda, equating him with the bliss of Jnana.

5. The greatness of Jnani's words

What does it matter to what caste they (Jnanis) belong?  What does it matter which religion they belong to?  What does it matter
which type of verses they have sung? Only the words of those who have renounced the mind are pure words.  All the rest lead only
to rebirth.       


Arunachala Siva.
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on March 30, 2013, 11:17:39 AM


6. Name of the work:

A whole lifetime will not suffice for anyone to comprehend clearly the Truth  through studying the Vedas and Agamas. By
studying this work (though), the heart will abide in the ocean of Amrita (nectar). It is therefore given the name Amrita Saram,
The Essence of Nectar.

7. Expression of Modesty:

When formerly three gods explained the import of utterances of Vedas, the world  could not comprehend. Now if I claim
that I am going to declare this truth for the world to know, I will be like a firefly that says, 'I will dispel and destroy the
darkness that exists as high as heaven.'

8. Declaring the good (or beneficial) path:

Knowing them to be transient, renounce the thought of life, here and hereafter. Walk the path of virtue (or rectitude).
Turn back the mind. Seek the Self realized. Hasten to know the true nature of reality. 

9. That which is rare:

It is rare indeed to obtain a human birth. Even if one gets it, it is more rare to study the Jnana scriptures. Rarer still is to become
one who possesses renunciation. But rarer than that is to become one possessing the knowledge of Reality.

10. The Characteristic of a Jnani:

The Jnani knows that consciousness alone exists. And that here is nothing that is not consciousness.   He knows  consciousness
entirely through consciousness. He is the Lord who exists without knowing or not knowing.  He is indeed the Supreme Reality
declared by the Vedas.


Arunachala Siva.   

Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on March 31, 2013, 09:48:21 AM

11.  The Jnani's actions

For both the Jnani and the Ajnani external conduct in activities such as eating look identical.  But the mind of Jnani is quite
different.  Though the breast of a woman is the same for both her baby and her husband, their mental development [leads
to] different [results].

12.  The Jnani's conduct

Will he think 'This is good' or 'This is bad?' Is not the entire world food the Jnani.  Could there be any rule whereby a fire raging
in forest might discriminated between trees, thinking 'One is good and another bad?'

13. Greatness of the Jnani:

Space is extremely vast, but the great Maya that gave birth to it is mere clay in the hands of Isvara.  If one ponders over it,
there is no one greater than Siva, but the one who has contained Siva in his mind is greater than Siva Himself.

14. Greatness of service to the Jnani:

Whenever the powerful Jnani asks God to manifest, God, eager to appear, will be waiting expectantly to serve him wherever
he goes.  Who indeed is there equal to those who serve the Jnani?

15.  Greatness of puja to the Jnani:

When the Jnani eats, everyone in the universe has eaten. [Even] Brahma, Vishnu and Siva  have eaten.  He who worships
a perfect Jnani, regarding him as Sivam, has indeed  feasted his eyes fully on the Supreme Being and worshipped Him.


Arunachala Siva.                 
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 01, 2013, 08:57:43 AM

16. Those who revile the Jnani:

Those who revile the powerful Jnani, those who listen  to it (the abuse),  those who do not get any hearing the abuse, those
who permit the Jnani to be abused, and those who do not leave the company of these four, (not) thinking it best to keep away
from them (these four) --- these are five deadly sinners.

17. Improper Conduct:

Those cruel hypocrites who have not removed the faults in their deluded minds, claiming, without having gained the true Jnana
born of yoga, that they are abiding as one reality merely for the sake of food, will not attain liberation, and neither will those who
hold them in their thoughts (their followers)

'For the sake of food' denotes any kind of material benefit that is gained from pretending to be enlightened.

20.  The cause of he world

They will say 'Atoms are the cause'; 'Great maya is the cause';  'A combination of atoms is the cause';  'The five elements are the
cause';  'The gunas are the cause';   Let them say any cause to be the cause.  Not asking 'what is the cause of this world?' is the
real cause of the world.

21.  Cause and effect are  not different.

Do not say that this impermanent world is apart from the eternal Reality.  Before becoming an ornament, when it is an ornament,
and when ornament is remelted and made again into a lump of gold, it is only gold.


Arunachala Siva.           
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 02, 2013, 09:45:55 AM


22. Cause and Effect are not different. (2)

The Lord is the underlying screen that is His One Self, which is the pure light of Jnana Ananda.  On it He, the Self, traced
by means of Himself, the picture of he world of multiplicity, girt by the roaring ocean.  He looked upon it and was well pleased.

25. The quality of all pervasiveness

The Eternal One creates the 84 lakhs of different species and abides within them all, just as empty space enters into and
occupies all the countless pots that have [ever] been made.

(Some Hindu texts posit that there are 8.4 million (84 lakhs) of species in which one can incarnate.)

26. Destruction

The body comprising the five elements will be destroyed into the elements.  The five elements, beginning with Space, will be
destroyed in Maya. Great Maya, the darkness, in which the multiplicity has ended will be destroyed by Jnana that arises here
[in this world], saturated with the light of being.

27.  The cause of birth

Like the transparent, shining and colorless crystal which takes on the color of the object that is adjacent to it, the knower
[the crystal[ becomes [takes on the appearance of] the adjacent objects [body and mind].  Since births come to an end when
the knower knows his real nature, the fundamental cause of birth is ignorance of one's real nature.

35. The nature of the body

When their prana leaves, men who are getting attached to land [wealth and women], they are given the name 'corpse' and removed
for burial.  In an instant worms come and infest this body.  Is there in this body any place as tiny as the tip of the sesame
that remains free from fault?


Arunachala Siva.   

Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 03, 2013, 09:47:08 AM


37. The despicable nature of enjoyment.

The Asuna bird, the elephant, moth, fish and bee get ruined respectively by a craving of sounds, touch, sight, taste and smell.
How disgusting !  Won't humans, possessed by worries, lose their power through their appetite for not one, but all these five
cravings, beginning with sound.

41.   The base nature of swarga (heavenly worlds).

[Lying with celestial damsels is ] lying with prostitutes.  Drinking ambrosia is nothing but getting drunk on intoxicating liquor.
When in one day of Brahma crores of devas are born and die, what is the glory that those who rule the deva world attain?

42. Impermanence

There is not a single thing that remains permanently in this world. This is what all the three gods declared. This is also the
doctrine of those other religions that war with each other.  Therefore, only impermanence is permanent.

44. Renunciation

Those who want to bring to an end to this birth in which one is caught in ignorance, should realize that even the body is
superfluous, and renounce completely.  For those who do not, it is not easy to attain liberation, which is freedom
from taking birth and dying.

This verse includes an indirect reference to Tiru KuRaL 345:  'For those who seek an end to birth, the body itself is a superfluous
burden. What then can we say of other forms of attachment?

80.  The argument that prarabdha is supreme.

If the body is a result of karma, then it would mean that the body existed before to perform the karma.  If karma is eternal,
then liberation will never be attained.  The fundamental cause of prarabdha is ignorance.


Arunachala Siva.             
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 04, 2013, 09:49:17 AM


82. Taking Kaya Kalpas:

We have not known anyone who lived for ever in this sea-girt world through Kaya Kalpa medicines.  Why are you afflicting
yourself, strengthening the body, which is unstable as a water bubble, and which causes ruination to one and all?

83.  Caste:

Freedom from the primal ignorance is the caste of the rare tapasvins.  Will they make even the slightest mention of differences
in caste?  Only those who possess Jnana belong to the  noble caste and lineage, and deserve to be worshipped. The rest are all
low caste people.

84. Bathing in holy water

Will the defilement of a mind that is not established in dharma be cleansed through water that is external [to itself]?  The holy
rivers are for the body only.  Otherwise they are powerless.  For the mind to become cleansed of defilement, and to shine,
the holy water one bathes is Consciousness.

85. Puja

Those lacking wisdom and thirsting for bliss, while standing  in the flood of endless supreme bliss that abides in the heart,
will bathe in water, collect water for abhishekam, gather flowers, cleanse the precincts with cow dung, and eventually
perform puja.

86.  Knowing the many paths.

You who are a tapasvin seeking the truth !  Let all the many paths declare, 'This alone is the way!  This alone is the way!'
What is the path through which consciousness that knows all these paths can be known?  That path, which is declared by
the Vedas, is the way of liberation.

87.  Learning Sastras.

Those who  have failed to grasp the true import of the holy scriptures they read and have therefore not come to know Consciousness
as it really is, will not go anywhere near the truth, even if they read crores and crores of scriptures.


Arunachala Siva.             
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 05, 2013, 09:24:37 AM


88. Attempting to know by measurement.

It is through consciousness that all measures have to be known.  He who desires to know consciousness through measures,
all of which have to be known through consciousness, is like one who wants to burn fire with firewood.

89.  Disputation.

In the way of disputation, when one wins, pride greatly swells.  When one loses, sorrow waxes a lot.  [The conclusion of]
disputation are not something that remains permanent. The only benefit is tearing one's head off and getting a sore throat.

92.  The noble way.

If the truth is known clearly, then that path which remains without conflict with any other path will be the path of becoming
Sat. If there is God's grace, it is easy to attain.  In the absence of God's grace, it will be difficult for everyone.

95.  Satya (Truthfullness)

If you ask, 'What is the practice of truthfulness?' then they say it to utter that which does not cause harm to any being.
But those who have realized the truth declared at the end of the Vedas, which speak a lot about purity, say that truth (Satya)
is only the Supreme, the Imperishable One.

(The first sentence refers to Tiruk KuRaL 291:  'If you ask, 'What is the truth?', it is to utter words that are entirely free of any
harmful effect.')

Yamas and Niyamas are codes of conduct for dealing with people and the world.  In this selection, Verses 95-100 explain
the inner significance of the Yamas.

96.  Ahimsa [non violence]

Ahimsa is not to inflict suffering on any living being.  The Self realized know that realizing that the Self is not destroyed by weapons,
wind, water, fire, etc., is ahimsa to oneself.

97.  Asteya [non stealing]

The say that to steal a thing either through force or deceit is theft. But if we are to declare the doctrine of Jnanis, stealing
is to regard the body, which does not belong to one, as 'I' and 'mine'.


Arunachala Siva.             
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 06, 2013, 09:59:50 AM


98.  Brahmacharya:

Brahmacharya is to avoid the company of women, but those who truly possess brahmacharya are the ones who have become
one with Brahman, which is extremely difficult to attain.

99. Arjava [honesty], dhriti [steadfastness] and daya [compassion]:

Arjava [honesty] is to view completely as all one: mother, father, son, daughter, wife, and evil enemies.  Dhriti [steadfastness]
is conviction in the way of the Vedas. Daya [compassion] is to have love lie a mother [towards her children].

100. Kshama [patience]

If you want to conquer those who have done evil to you, always  bear with them patiently without entertaining hatred, If you
have to entertain hatred [towards something], kill that one thing 'anger'.  He who can do it will be freed from all dangers.

103. Tapas.

Tapas is curtailing one's food through vows and tormenting the body.  But the tapas to end births is inquiring 'Who am I?'.
'Through what did I get this birth?'. 'What is the nature of liberation in which one becomes Sivam?'

Verses 103 and 104 elaborate on two of the ten niyamas.


Arunachala Siva.               
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 07, 2013, 09:59:28 AM


104. Santosham (contentment)

Contentment is to be satisfied by acceptance of whatever one gets.  But the Vedas' words say that the contentment is the
happiness of experiencing truly the Supreme in the heart, forsaking all the states hat are spoken of, beginning with Brahma Loka.

117. Ridiculing Siddhis.

There will be trouble for those who contemplate the wealth of siddhis, beginning with anima.  Without realizing that ashtanga yoga
is a step towards attaining Jnana, they are crazy, like those who lift an iron wall, using [flimsy] sugarcane as a lever, and willingly
gather bran.

Anima, the first of eight listed siddhis, is the ability to shrink ourself to a minute form. 

Bran is the skin of rice seed that is removed by milling. The combination of the two images in the final sentences indicates that an
immense amount of pointless activity is invested in gaining siddhis that ultimately have little or no use.

127. The six defects.

Food and drink are the prana's. Happiness and misery are for the mind. The trouble of growing old and dying are for the body.
If one [knows the truth, one] knows  these are not for the Self.


Arunachala Siva,
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 08, 2013, 01:23:40 PM


137. The three attachments.

All relationship that arise constitute attachment to offspring.  All the sankalpas constitute attachment to the world. All the
sense objects enjoyed constitute attachment to wealth.  These three attachments will leave only if one sees the Reality.

148. Tattvas.

If one knows the truth of the indestructible Reality, then the rest of the various tattvas cease to exist. Then why are these
mentioned and discussed?  If people with defective vision see the moon as many, does it become many for that reason?
Is not the cool moon one only?

159.  Mahavakya.

In the three world 'That You Are', 'That' refers to Brahman.  'You' refers to Jiva. The word 'Are' refers to the union of Brahman
and Jiva, achieved through casting off the limitation, the body.

165.  The difference between Jiva and Isvara.

In the body there are two, a knower and a witness, known as Jiva and Isvara. The differences that can  be ascribed as base and
excellent qualities exist through limitations. But their Swarupa is identical.

The implication of the original Tamizh, which is hard to convey in literal translation, is that once the Jiva comes into existence, with a
limited outlook, the opposite and complementary entity Isvara, comes into existence with no limitation on it.

167.  Isvara.

He is the cause of everything and the Lord of everything.  He is none of these many things, but they cannot exist apart from Him.
He pervades within and without, and knows all.


Arunachala Siva.
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 09, 2013, 07:47:06 AM


168.  Jiva and Isvara are not different.

If the limitations are destroyed, the Jiva and Isvara are identical.  Their limitations of base and excellent are only an
appearance. It is like seeing the space within a pot and the unlimited space as different. But look, consciousness is one only.

169.  Cause of Maya.

If one seeks to know the fundamental cause of maya, which is not known [directly], it will be impossible to know it through
consciousness. If you can know and tell me the cause of darkness with the help of a lamp, then you can know the cause of ignorance
through consciousness.

171.  The world

This world, a delusory dream, consisting of infinite differences, is seen as different from oneself, and as if real [in the sleep of maya].
When the sleep of maya ends, how can this world, which is destroyed in Jnana, come into existence? Can there be dreaming after
one wakes up from sleep?

172.  The world

Despite fire existing within wood, it rots on earth, becoming a prey to white ants.  This is similar to what happens in the absence
of the shining of the Self.  Will the miseries arising from the word exist if the Self, which is Jnana, shines through [the grace of the]
Sadguru?  If fire is generated in wood, can the wood exist?

The fire within the wood denotes the hidden power of the Self within each being.  The 'shining of the Self', channeled through
the form of the Saduguru, brings the latent fire within the wood.


Arunachala Siva.   
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 10, 2013, 09:43:07 AM


173. The Primacy of Jnana.

If the three paths charya, kriya and yoga do not become steps towards Jnana, then they will become inferior states of liberation
and be destroyed.  To merge with the liberation that destroys identification with the body, there is no way other than the eye
of Jnana.

The practices of charya, kriya and yoga are part of Saiva Siddhantam tradition.  Kriya is worshipping Siva inwardly and outwardly.
Charya is rendering service in a temple, and worshipping there, and Yoga denotes inward   meditation on Siva.

174. The characteristics of Jnana.

Jnana is to know consciousness without the knowing that takes the form of knower, knowing and object of knowledge.  This
occurs when knowledge of the mind and the senses, which know through the various sense organs, have all subsided.

175.  The greatness of Jnana.

The rare Vedas position Karma, which tosses one about, at the bottom.  But they wear Jnana on their heads without any
contradiction  and confusion.  Only they know the greatness of Jnana.  The rest do not.

176.  Jnana Puja.

To bathe in the tears of Bliss, to worship strewing beautiful flowers of love, offering oneself as consecrated food, to view all
the Chit and Jada appearing before one as Sivam -  this is the puja to Siva.

178. The power of Jnana.

Do all the innumerable punyas and papas that attach to one exist when the fire of Jnana is kindled?  Is there anything that
remains unburnt along wih ignorance?  When a forest is caught in a fire, does any tender tree survive?


Arunachala Siva. 
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 11, 2013, 11:03:56 AM


179. Slipping from Yoga:

If a Jnana Sadhaka happens to die midway (through his sadhana), without merging with the Reality, through yoga, he
will not enter the evil worlds but will gain experience of all the fruits attained by those who have performed virtuous
sacrifices.  Thereafter, he will be born again and attain liberation through yoga.

181.  The means of liberation.

Karma performed without desiring its fruits, listening to exposition of Jnana scriptures, shanti and renunciation are the mean
to attain a Guru.  He is the means to gain the hard to attain liberation.

182.  The Guru's characteristics.

O Lord!  I am not any of those things beginning with the body, which is the prison, and ending with the mind.  The Vedas declared
'You are That'!  But if you ask, 'What am I?', the Guru will declare, 'You are this. See!'

183.  The Greatness of the Guru.

God remains in the heart concealing himself, but the Guru, dispelling ignorance, reveals God. Tell me, who is the liberal
benefactor?  Is it He who bears the formless form , or he who took the form of the Guru, so that the formless form might
be seen?


Arunachala Siva.               
Title: Re: Amrita Saram - Tattuvaraya
Post by: Subramanian.R on April 12, 2013, 07:42:37 AM


184.  Incompetent Gurus

The office of guru performed by those who do not have knowledge of reality is like the following:  achieving pregnancy through
intercourse in a dream, trying to make a cloth from the hair of a sea-turtle, trying to light a fire with a firefly, trying to make a bow
with the horn of a hare, and obtaining milk from a bull.

185.  The mature disciple

He who has realized in his mind the impermanence  of the body, he who feels like one caught in a raging fire, or like the frog
in the mouth of an angry cobra --- his heart is like the prey caught in the tiger's clasp.

186.  The immature disciple

They do not have tapas, purity, truth and compassion.  They do not worship the feet of the Guru.  They do not believe in
reality.  They are eager to make money. Their thoughts are on enjoyments.  It is not proper to bestow grace on these.

187.  The immature disciple

The teaching which for some leads to clear attainment will for some others lead to perverse understanding.  Though pure
water is all the same, when the cow consumes it, she yields milk, but when cobra consumes it, it yields poison.

The excerpts from Amrita Saram - concluded.


Arunachala Siva.